Processes & Products

The Major Processes:

  • Cold Drawing: Descale, pull through tungsten carbide or high speed steel die, straighten & cut-to-length. Improves dimensional tolerance and shape, straightness, surface finish, strength and machinability.
  • Turning and Polishing: Remove bar surface with revolving cutting tool, rotate bar through rolls to straighten and polish, then cut-to-length. Improved dimensional tolerances and removes surface defects and decarburization.
  • Grinding: Abrasive wheel grinds off surface metal. Improves surface finish and achieves very close dimensional tolerances.
  • Stress Relieve Anneal: Sub-critical thermal treatment applied after cold drawing. Removes residual stresses in the bar and may also increase yield strength.
  • Straightening: Bending applied to bar through a set of rolls. Improves straightness.
  • Cutting: Separates into desired lengths by cold shearing or sawing. Improved length tolerance, end distortion and perpendicularity.

Other Common Processes:

  • Cold Rolling: Descale, pass through series of rolling stands, strengthening and cut-to-length. Improves dimensional tolerance and shape, surface finish and strength.
  • Chamfering: Cutting a taper and end-facing the bar. Eliminates end distortion and improves bar feeding.
  • Annealing: Heating above the critical temperature and slow coating the bar. Controls microstructure and softens the bar.
  • Normalizing: Heating above the critical temperature and air cooling the bar. Improves uniformity of microstructure.
  • Quenching and Tempering: Heating above the critical temperature and quenching the bar in oil or water followed by a tempering operation increased strength, hardness and toughness.

Products Available:

A vast range of process combinations are available to meet different quality characteristics. Some of the most common process classifications are:
  • Cold Drawn (CD)
  • Cold Drawn, Stress Relieved (CD, SR)
  • Turned & Polished (T&P)
  • Ground & Polished (G&P)
  • Turned, Ground & Polished (TG&P)
  • Cold Drawn, Turned & Polished (CD, T&P)
  • Cold Drawn, Ground & Polished (CD, G&P)
  • Cold Drawn, Turned, Ground & Polished (CD, TG&P)
  • Cold Drawn, Stress Relieved, Turned, Ground & Polished (CD, SR, TG&P)